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Web Hosting - The Internet and How It Works
In one sense, detailing the statement in the title would require at least a book. In another sense, it can't be fully explained at all, since there's no central authority that designs or implements the highly distributed entity called The Internet.
But the basics can certainly be outlined, simply and briefly. And it's in the interest of any novice web site owner to have some idea of how their tree fits into that gigantic forest, full of complex paths, that is called the Internet.
The analogy to a forest is not far off. Every computer is a single plant, sometimes a little bush sometimes a mighty tree. A percentage, to be sure, are weeds we could do without. In networking terminology, the individual plants are called 'nodes' and each one has a domain name and IP address. Connecting those nodes are paths.
The Internet, taken in total, is just the collection of all those plants and the pieces that allow for their interconnections - all the nodes and the paths between them.
Servers and clients (desktop computers, laptops, PDAs, cell phones and more) make up the most visible parts of the Internet. They store information and programs that make the data accessible. But behind the scenes there are vitally important components - both hardware and software - that make the entire mesh possible and useful.
Though there's no single central authority, database, or computer that creates the World Wide Web, it's nonetheless true that not all computers are equal. There is a hierarchy. That hierarchy starts with a tree with many branches: the domain system.
Designators like .com, .net, .org, and so forth are familiar to everyone now. Those basic names are stored inside a relatively small number of specialized systems maintained by a few non-profit organizations. They form something called the TLD, the Top Level Domains. From there, company networks and others form what are called the Second Level Domains, such as Microsoft.com.
That's further sub-divided into www.Microsoft.com which is, technically, a sub-domain but is sometimes mis-named 'a host' or a domain. A host is the name for one specific computer. That host name may or may not be, for example, 'www' and usually isn't. The domain is the name without the 'www' in front. Finally, at the bottom of the pyramid, are the individual hosts (usually servers) that provide actual information and the means to share it.
Those hosts (along with other hardware and software that enable communication, such as routers) form a network. The set of all those networks taken together is the physical aspect of the Internet.
There are less obvious aspects, too, that are essential. When you click on a URL (Uniform Resource Locator, such as http://www.microsoft.com) on a web page, your browser sends a request through the Internet to connect and get data. That request, and the data that is returned from the request, is divided up into packets (chunks of data wrapped in routing and control information).
That's one of the reasons you will often see your web page getting painted on the screen one section at a time. When the packets take too long to get where they're supposed to go, that's a 'timeout'. Suppose you request a set of names that are stored in a database. Those names, let's suppose get stored in order. But the packets they get shoved into for delivery can arrive at your computer in any order. They're then reassembled and displayed.
All those packets can be directed to the proper place because they're associated with a specified IP address, a numeric identifier that designates a host (a computer that 'hosts' data). But those numbers are hard to remember and work with, so names are layered on top, the so-called domain names we started out discussing.
Imagine the postal system (the Internet). Each home (domain name) has an address (IP address). Those who live in them (programs) send and receive letters (packets). The letters contain news (database data, email messages, images) that's of interest to the residents.
The Internet is very much the same.
The Ins and Outs of Free Writing Contests (free writing contests) Free writing contests are available by the thousands. They are virtually a dime a dozen on the Internet. No matter what your niche is in the writing community there is a free writing contests out there for you. How do you know which ones to enter and which ones are legitimate? That?s simple. You do what you do best-- research. While providing the story for the free writing contest will probably be the easy part, researching the thousands of available contests will be a daunting task. If this is un-chartered water for you, you have the start at the beginning. Finding what free writing contests are available. Grab a notebook or start a word document and list the contests that are available. Beside each contest name you will want to put what kind of writing they are looking for and when it needs to be done by. By doing this first you will be able to eliminate any that do not coincide with your writing niche or with your schedule. Now the free writing contest research begins. Finding out if a contest is worthwhile and legitimate is comparable to running a background check on a person. First check the contest website. Do they have all contact information available? Do they tell you what company is hosting the contest? If they are not, you will have likely found warning number one that it is a scam. So scratch those off your list or at least move them to the bottom until you can find out more information on them. Start asking around to colleagues and writers groups. Search the writing forums and the Internet scam sites. The Better Business Bureau is also a good place to look. Once you narrowed the free writing contests down to the legitimate ones, read the contest rules and regulations. Some contests require you signing over all rights to a story even if you don?t win. Are you willing to do this? Giving up rights to you writing is a lot easier to do when you are getting something in return. After you enter there is no going back, so make sure this is what you want to do. The final thing you need to look for is if the contest is just a cover up to get you to buy services or products. This does not necessarily mean they are a scam or don?t actually award winners. It simply means that they will try to entice you to use their critiquing services or offer you a book at a reduced fee that your work will be published in. Being published sounds like a great deal but is it a book that carries prestige that people are going to see? Many authors think that writing contests will launch their career into a successful endeavor. This is not the case, especially for free writing contests. Even winning the grand prize of a smaller known contest is not going to affect your literary journey. Even though they may not springboard your career, there are good reasons to join writing contests. You will get unbiased opinions and valuable feedback from the judges. If you make it into the higher rounds, editors could also see your writing. Ultimately whether you enter a free writing contest the choice is yours. Just ask you self if the time spent writing and researching the piece you choose to enter is worth writing for free in most cases. The critique and feedback may be the most worthwhile thing you receive from the contest. But then again the judges opinions are a dime a dozen just like the contests.
Software copyright buy For Software Copyright Buy Locally To gain permission to use software copyright, buy the software. This sounds like such a simple solution and yet I know this isn't always as easy as it seems. Software is expensive, largely due to misuse and abuses of the past and the average consumer can't always afford to buy the software package and product he or she needs for business or pleasure. It is important when setting priorities for software purchases that you don't limit all your purchases to pleasurable pursuits. When making copyright software buy, be sure that you are getting the best possible product for your money. I've seen so many people spend foolishly for one product because it is the most common product on the market when another less expensive product would have been completely adequate at far less than half the price. Most people never use the bells and whistles they pay for when purchasing software. The best way to be sure that you are getting the best copyright software buy you can possibly get is to make a list of things you need your software to do, the things you'd like it to, and find all the software on the market that does those things. Find the one with the lowest cost and the most necessary features and let that be the software you decide to purchase. Don't make these decisions on the spur of the moment as you will almost always cost yourself more money in the long run. Another way to insure that you are getting a great copyright software buy is by comparing prices at local and online stores before making the purchase. You might be surprised by where you will find the lowest price (also keep in mind shipping costs when purchasing online they do swing the vote sometimes). Comparative pricing can save you hundreds of dollars in the course of a year on personal software and quite literally thousands of dollars each year on professional software. Be sure to make those decisions wisely as money spent poorly is money that could have been spent elsewhere. You should always remember when comparing prices and searching for the deal of the century when it comes to copyright software buy from a reputable source. This shouldn't have to be said but it really must be said. You would be amazed at how many people have received pirated software from purchases they've made online. This is an especially bad things for business deals in which the software was needed rather than personal software that was merely wanted and looked forward to. In business you could very well loose your investment in the pirated software as well valuable time getting the copyright software buy you actually needed in the first place. While the costs of doing business locally are often more expensive than it can be online I do recommend that for some purchases, particularly copyright software buy locally even if it is a little more costly. It's nice to know that there's a person on the other side if something goes wrong and that they want your business and want people in the community to respect their business. In other words local businesses are much more likely to give the personal touch and protect their reputations by doing the right thing. There are many other reasons that buying locally is good for you and your business buying needs. Buying locally for your business will establish your business locally (this is especially good if you don't have a huge presence or massive storefront from which to advertise). It also helps you make important business contacts in order to help your local business grow. For your copyright software buy locally to have some degree of assurance about the product you are getting.